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Facts About Special Education
-There are 12 special education categories.  They are:
    1.    Specific Learning Disabilities (51.1%)
    2.    Speech or Language Impairements (20.8%)
    3.    Mental Retardation (11.6%)
    4.    Serious Emotional Disturbance (8.7%)
    5.    Other Health Impairemnts (2.2%)
    6.    Multiple Disabitilies (1.8%)
    7.    Hearing Impairements (1.3%)
    8.    Orthopedic Impairements (1.2%)
    9.    Visual Impairements (0.5%)
    10.    Autism (0.5%)
    11.    Traumatic Brain Injury (0.1%)
    12.    Deaf-Blindness (0.0%)

-    Special Education Personnel includes:
Audiologists, supervisors, work study coordinators, physical     therapists, occupational therapists, interpreters, school social workers, counselors, teacher aides, psychologists, and other professional staff.

-    Jean-Mark-Gaspard Itard is considered to be "The Father of Special Education."  He lived from 1775-1838 and was known for his book The Wild Boy of Aveyron.

-    Classifying and labeling students has advantages and disadvantages.  By creating a label and classifying a student as having special needs, we are able to differentiate between disabilities, communicate effectively about specific disabilities, provide a common language to use for discussion, and treat/accommodate for the student accordingly.    Labels can also lead to discrimination, exclusion, and MANY limitations.  Labeling should be conducted appropriately.

-    When referring to a student with special needs, you should always put the child first.  For example, "Mary is a mentally retarded student" would be an incorrect way to refer to a student.  "Mary is a student with mental retardation" is the proper alternative.

Special Education Laws:

EHA PL 94-142
- Education of the Handicapped Act.  
- Created in 1975.
- Said that all children with disabilities/handicaps must be provided with a "free appropriate public education," which is known as "FAPE."  
- States that the FAPE should take place in the "least restrictive environment" (LRE).
- Services are to be provided at public expense, without charging the families of the participants.
- The passing of this law was STRONGLY influenced by the Civil Rights Movement.
- Only protected school-aged children.

PL 99-457
- Education of the Handicapped Act Ammendments of 1986.
- Addresses children ages 0-2 (infants and toddlers) that require early intervention (EI) services.

IDEA PL 101-476
- Individuals with Disabilities Education Act.
- First passed in 1990.
- Referred to students as disabled and not handicapped.
- Incorporated the IEP, Individualized Education Program
    - A management tool to document individual special         education programs.
    - Gives parents, students, and school personnel a chance to work together.
    - Ensures accountability in planning and services.
    - Includes child's level of performance
    - Annual goals (to be measured)
    - States special education services, aids, programs, modifications, etc. required.
    - Gives a breakdown of times that child will spend in general education setting versus time spent in special education classrooms.
    - A high school IEP includes post-educational plans.
    - Provides criteria to see if goals are being achieved.
- Evaluation will be completed by a multidisciplinary team in the student's native language.  This is referred to as "Nondiscriminatory Evaluation."
- Confidentiality is a MUST!!!
- Students will be screened in any possible way to identify disabilities.
- The parents and students have rights to all of this information and have the right to a due-process hearing if there is no mutual agreement with the school's services.

mainstreaming - special education students are placed in regular educational settings or "normal"  specials such as music, art, physical education, etc.).

inclusion - all students have the right to learn in a regular education classroom and should participate in that setting.

General Music
Secondary Choral Music
Teaching Tips
Works Cited
Special Thanks To...