-There are 12 special education categories. They are:
1. Specific Learning Disabilities (51.1%)
2. Speech or Language Impairements (20.8%)
3. Mental Retardation (11.6%)
4. Serious Emotional Disturbance (8.7%)
5. Other Health Impairemnts (2.2%)
6. Multiple Disabitilies (1.8%)
7. Hearing Impairements (1.3%)
8. Orthopedic Impairements (1.2%)
9. Visual Impairements (0.5%)
10. Autism (0.5%)
11. Traumatic Brain Injury (0.1%)
12. Deaf-Blindness (0.0%)
- Special Education Personnel includes:
Audiologists, supervisors, work study coordinators, physical therapists, occupational therapists, interpreters, school social workers, counselors, teacher aides, psychologists, and other professional staff.
- Jean-Mark-Gaspard Itard is considered to be "The Father of Special Education." He lived from 1775-1838 and was known for his book The Wild Boy of Aveyron.
- Classifying and labeling students has advantages and disadvantages. By creating a label and classifying a student as having special needs, we are able to differentiate between disabilities, communicate effectively about specific disabilities, provide a common language to use for discussion, and treat/accommodate for the student accordingly. Labels can also lead to discrimination, exclusion, and MANY limitations. Labeling should be conducted appropriately.
- When referring to a student with special needs, you should always put the child first. For example, "Mary is a mentally retarded student" would be an incorrect way to refer to a student. "Mary is a student with mental retardation" is the proper alternative.
Special Education Laws:
EHA PL 94-142
- Education of the Handicapped Act.
- Created in 1975.
- Said that all children with disabilities/handicaps must be provided with a "free appropriate public education," which is known as "FAPE."
- States that the FAPE should take place in the "least restrictive environment" (LRE).
- Services are to be provided at public expense, without charging the families of the participants.
- The passing of this law was STRONGLY influenced by the Civil Rights Movement.
- Only protected school-aged children.
- Education of the Handicapped Act Ammendments of 1986.
- Addresses children ages 0-2 (infants and toddlers) that require early intervention (EI) services.
IDEA PL 101-476
- Individuals with Disabilities Education Act.
- First passed in 1990.
- Referred to students as disabled and not handicapped.
- Incorporated the IEP, Individualized Education Program
- A management tool to document individual special education programs.
- Gives parents, students, and school personnel a chance to work together.
- Ensures accountability in planning and services.
- Includes child's level of performance
- Annual goals (to be measured)
- States special education services, aids, programs, modifications, etc. required.
- Gives a breakdown of times that child will spend in general education setting versus time spent in special education classrooms.
- A high school IEP includes post-educational plans.
- Provides criteria to see if goals are being achieved.
- Evaluation will be completed by a multidisciplinary team in the student's native language. This is referred to as "Nondiscriminatory Evaluation."
- Confidentiality is a MUST!!!
- Students will be screened in any possible way to identify disabilities.
- The parents and students have rights to all of this information and have the right to a due-process hearing if there is no mutual agreement with the school's services.
mainstreaming - special education students are placed in regular educational settings or "normal" specials such as music, art, physical education, etc.).
inclusion - all students have the right to learn in a regular education classroom and should participate in that setting.